DDS documentation

This is the archive for DDS (De Digitale Stad) related documents: reports, research, papers, interviews, essays, etc. I collected this for my thesis on DDS: The Rise and Fall of DDS. What I actually used is in the bibliography.

I assume for all documents I mirrored that they are out of print and that the author is not harmed if I publish it here. If this is not the case, let me know. I also welcome extra material.

DDS becomes DeDS

Castells, M. 2001: 153 The Internet Gallaxy, Reflections on the Internet, Business and Society

As Castells noticed, in 2001 I launched a successor to De Digitale Stad (DDS) as De echte Digitale Stad (DeDS), the actual digital city. Offering free homepages and e-mail with an emphasis on privacy protection. There are thousands of users and I am a board member in the association that makes it possible, aptly called Open Domein (Open Domain). For example, you can park your webpages that would otherwise disappear from the web. If it is database driven, just freeze it first using wget. Also, you can get a free e-mail address that is not read by anyone or anything but you.


A reaction by Colin Williams describing the Toronto freenet with interesting similarities with the DDS case.

Reciprocal links

The Israeli Internet Society mentions this websites and quotes from this essay.

This thesis is listed in a list of student papers on Digital or Virtual Cities in Paris, Vienna, Graz, Manchester, Berlin, Brasov, Bucharest, Madrid and Barcelona. The index is in Greek, but some of the papers are in English."

The Center of Excellence for Electronic Government made a mini-review of this thesis and a link.


Beckers, D.: Use and Users of the Amsterdam Digital City, Masters thesis. University of Amsterdam, 1998.

Besselaar, P. van den: Electronic infrastructures and social networks, a social analysis of citizens and city life in the Amsterdam Digital City. In C.Page & D. Schuler, Communication space and cyberspace, what's the connection?. Seattle: CPSR, 1997, pp 14-16.

Besselaar, P. van den, Beckers, D. (1998), Demographics and sociographics of the Digital City, In T. Ishida (ed) Community Computing and Support Systems — Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1519, pp.109-125.

Besselaar, P. van den, Melis, I., Beckers, D. (2000), Digital cities: organization, content and use. In T. Ishida, K. Isbister (eds.) Digital cities, experiences, trends, and perspectives - Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1765, pp.18-32.

Boomen, M. van den (1994) De Groene Amsterdammer 2 maart 1994 Gewoon af en toe mijn gal spuien :-) De Digitale Stad na zes weken.

Brants, K., Huizenga, M., van Meerten, R.,: The new canals of Amsterdam: an exercise in local electronic democracy, In Media, Culture and Society Vol. 18: 233-247 (1996). London, Thousand Oakes and New Delhi, Sage.

Doppert, M., 2002 Internet pioniers, De eerste internetgeneratie. Amsterdam: Otto Cramwinckel Uitgever.

Flint, J. (2004) DDS 10 jaar anders in: DDS or PDF

Francissen, L., Brants, K.: Virtual Going Places, Square Hopping in Amsterdam’s Digital City. Tsagarousianon, Tambini, Bryan (eds.), Cyberdemocracy, Technology, Cities, and Civic Networks. London, Routledge, 1998.

Hinssen, P. (1995) Wired 3.06 Life in the digital city

Kerckhoffs, S. M., (2001) MUD - wrestling with identity - een onderzoek naar virtuele identiteit in een Nederlandse MUD. Nijmegen, Communicatiewetenschap scriptie.
mirror as PDF

Lieshout, M. J. van (2001) Configuring the digital city of Amsterdam - Social learning in experimentation. In: New Media & Society, Vol 3 (1) pp. 27-52

Lovink, G. At the cross-road of liberty and politics - The Amsterdam Digital City gets established

Lovink, G., Riemens, P. Amsterdam Public Digital Culture 2000 in: Telepolis

Meerten, R. van, 1993. Projectvoorstel De Digitale Stad, Archive Municipality of Amsterdam BBI/93/103/1, September 27th. mirror

Lovink, G. (2002) The Digital City - Metaphor and Community In: Lovink, G. Dark Fiber, Tracking Critical Internet Culture, pp. 42-67. Cambridge / London: The MIT Press.
little note: Geert Lovink refers to for an overview of DDS research papers in English. Which should be this page, I hope this reference is picked up by webspiders for people searching for or with a search engine.

Meerten, R. van, 1994. Projectvoorstel 2e fase De Digitale Stad, Archive Municipality of Amsterdam BBI/93/103/11, July 1st. mirror

Melis, I.: The local electronic network society. MA Thesis, Universiteit van Amsterdam. 1998.

Rommes, E. (2001) Worlds Apart: Exclusion-processes in DDS.
in HTML as mirror as RTF document for the Second Kyoto Meeting on Digital Cities

Els Rommes, "Users as Designers of ICT: Gender and the Design of a Digital City"

Rommes, E., E. van Oost, and N. Oudshoorn. (1999) Gender in the Design of a Digital City. Information Technology, Communication and Society (2), 4: 476-495.
E. Rommes, E. van Oost, N. Oudshoorn (2001) Gender in the design of the digital city of Amsterdam, in: E. Green, A. Adam (eds), Virtual Gender; Technology, consumption and identity, London and New York, Routledge, pp 241-261
mirror as HTML or as RTF document

Rommes, E. (2000) Gendered User-Representations. In Women, Work and Computerization, Charting a Course to the Future, edited by E.Balka and R. Smith, 137-145. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
mirror as HTML or as RTF file

Rommes, E. (1998) Gender en digitale steden in Nederland, Noviteit: 14-16.

Schalken, K., Flint, J.: Handboek Digitale Steden. Amsterdam: Stichting De Balie, 1995
mirror as RTF-file and as HTML files

Schalken, K., Tops, P.: (1994) The Digital City, A study into the backgrounds and opinions of its residents Paper presented at the Canadian Community Networks Conference August 15-17, 1994 Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada.

Schalken, Kees en Tops, Pieter (1994) De digitale stad Gemeenschap en democratie in de informatiemaatschappij In: Jilleba, Kock, ea. (red.). Jaarboek overheidscommunicatie 1995 (pp. 47-55). Den Haag: VUGA Uitgeverij BV / Vereniging voor Overheidscommunicatie (VVO).
mirror as RTF file as HTML file

Schalken, K., Tops, P.W. (1995) De Digitale Stad - het eerste jaar evaluatierapport voor de Gemeente Amsterdam
mirror as RTF file (31pages) and as HTML file


Rommes, E. (2002), proefschrift. Outline Gender in a digital city as HTML or RTF document

Drosterij, G. (2002), proefschrift. The Political Status of Virtual Communities


Tan, Shuschen, Digital City, Amsterdam, An Interview with Marleen Stikker. Translated by Patrice Riemens. CTHEORY

Interview van Geert Lovink met Marleen Stikker, maart 2001 op Nettime-nl

Interview met Mieg over DDS door Geert Lovink voor Nettime-nl

Interview met Reinder Rustema over Open Domein. Eindexamen werkstuk Martijn van Es De strijd van de sprinkhanen

Interview van Wessel Zweers met Reinder Rustema in Netkwesties editie 26 over scriptie The Rise and Fall of DDS. Harde noten over idealen DDS

Usefull links

website for the celebration of the 5th birthday of DDS

The classic, third DDS www-interface before it went off-line at 1 August 2001. Non-functional. The current interface is the fifth.

Archeological service in Dutch.


Het Parool, 5 nov 2003, "Oprichter Digitale Stad" nu enig eigenaar

SmallZine DDS Special with many good links

Persarchief van Vereniging Open Domein

Alfabetische Index Digitale Stad a.k.a.

Stichting De Digitale Stad Verslag februari 1996 tot en met april 1996

Column Felipe Rodriquez Netkwesties editie 19, 9 augustus 2001

Francisco van Jole over de opening van DDS"

Digital cities

Ishida, T., Isbister, K. (ed.) Digital Cities: technologies, experiences and future perspectives (1998) Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1765. Berlin: Springer-Verlag


Keith N. Hampton, MIT hat seine bei Barry Wellman, Toronto, geschriebene Dissertation ueber "Netville" als pdf (1,5 MB) ins Netz gestellt. "Living the Wired Life in the Wired Suburb: Netville, Glocalization and Civil Society"

Communities On-line: Community-Based Computer Networks by Anne Beamish. Submitted to the Department of Urban Studies and Planning in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master in City Planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology February 1995

Beckers, D. Research on virtual communities: an empirical approach. Paper accepted by the PDC '98 / CSCW '98 Workshop on Designing Across Borders: The Community Design of Community Networks. Seattle, WA. November, 14. 1998.

Boomen, M. van den (2000) Leven op het net - de sociale betekenis van virtuele gemeenschappen. Amsterdam: Instituut voor Publiek en Politiek.

CIVIC NETWORKS, Building Community on the Net by Scott London. March 1997

Schuler, Douglas (1994), Community networks, building a new participatory medium, Communications of the ACM 37, pp.52-63.

Schuler, Douglas (1996), New community networks, wired for change. ACM Press, New York.

Schuler, D., Page, C.: Community Space & Cyberspace, what is the Connection? Proceedings 6th DIAC, March 1997. Seattle: CPSR, 1997.

Rheingold, H.: The Virtual Community. Harper 1993. a review of the new edition by First Monday

Schuler, Doug (1996) Developing and Sustaining Community Networks Internet

Sutherland, Ewan (1990) Minitel -- the resistible rise of French videotex

Guy, N.K (1991) Community networks: building real communities in a virtual space? University of Waterloo Internet

London, Scott (1997) Civic Networks: Building Community on the Net Internet

Cohill, A.M. en Kavanaugh (1997) A.L. Community Networks, Lessons form Blacksburg, Virgina Artech house, Norwood, USA.

Wellman, "The Network Community" An Introduction To Networks in the Global Village.